Controversy là gì

Whether it's a bluff or a genuine threat of invasion, the increase in Chinese military activity in Taiwan over the last few months has caused global concern.

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At the heart of the divide is that the Chinese government sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that will, eventually, be part of the country again.

Many Taiwanese people disagree. They feel they in effect have a separate nation - whether or not independence is ever officially declared.


Going bachồng khổng lồ the beginning - the first known settlers in Taiwan were Austronesian tribal people, who are thought to have sầu come from modern day southern Đài Loan Trung Quốc.

The isl& seems khổng lồ have sầu first appeared in Chinese records in AD239, when an emperor sent an expeditionary force khổng lồ explore the area - something Beijing uses to back its territorial clayên ổn.

After a relatively brief spell as a Dutch colony (1624-1661), Taiwan was administered by China's Qing dynasty from 1683 to lớn 1895.


From the 17th Century, significant numbers of migrants started arriving from Đài Loan Trung Quốc, often fleeing turmoil or hardship. Most were Hoklo Chinese from Fujian (Fukien) province or Hakka Chinese, largely from Guangdong. The descendants of these two migrations are now by far the largest demographic groups on the islvà.

In 1895, nhật bản won the First Sino-Japanese War, và the Qing government had khổng lồ cede Taiwan to lớn Japan. After World War Two, Japan surrendered và relinquished control of territory it had taken from Trung Quốc. The Republic of Đài Loan Trung Quốc - one of the victors in the war - began ruling Taiwan with the consent of its allies, the US & UK.

But in the next few years a civil war broke out in China, and the then-leader Chiang Kai-shek's troops were beaten bachồng by Mao Zedong's Communist armies.


Chiang and the remnants of his Kuomintang (KMT) government fled khổng lồ Taiwan in 1949. This group, referred to lớn as Mainlvà Chinese and then making up 1.5m people, dominated Taiwan's politics for many years - even though they only trương mục for 14% of the population.

Having inherited an effective sầu dictatorship, facing resistance from local people resentful of authoritarian rule and under pressure from a growing democracy movement, Chiang's son, Chiang Ching-kuo, began allowing a process of democratisation.

President Lee Teng-hui, known as Taiwan's "father of democracy", led constitutional changes towards a more democratic political layout, which eventually led to lớn the election of the island's first non-KMT president, Chen Shui-bian, in 2000.


Relations between China & Taiwan started improving in the 1980s. Trung Quốc put forward a formula, known as "one country, two systems", under which Taiwan would be given significant autonomy if it accepted Chinese reunification.

This system was established in Hong Kong to lớn be used as something of a showcase to entice Taiwanese people baông chồng lớn the mainl&.

Taiwan rejected the offer, but it did relax rules on visits lớn and investment in Đài Loan Trung Quốc. In 1991, it also proclaimed the war with the People's Republic of Trung Quốc on the mainl& to be over.

There were also limited talks between the two sides' unofficial representatives, though Beijing's insistence that Taiwan's Republic of China (ROC) government is illegitimate meant government-to-government meetings couldn't happen.


And in 2000, when Taiwan elected Chen Shui-bian as president, Beijing was alarmed. Mr Chen had openly backed "independence".

A year after Mr Chen was re-elected in 2004, China passed a so-called anti-secession law, stating China's right to lớn use "non-peaceful means" against Taiwan if it tried to "secede" from Đài Loan Trung Quốc.

Mr Chen was succeeded by Ma Ying-jeou, who, after taking office in 2008, sought to lớn improve relations with Trung Quốc through economic agreements.

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Eight years later, in năm 2016, Taiwan's current president Tkhông nên Ing-wen was elected. She leads the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), which leans towards eventual official independence from Đài Loan Trung Quốc.

After Donald Trump won the năm 2016 US election, Ms Tsai spoke khổng lồ hyên ổn on the phone - a break with US policy phối in 1979, when formal relations were cut.

Despite the lack of formal ties, the US has pledged lớn supply Taiwan with defensive weapons & has stressed any attaông chồng by Trung Quốc would cause "grave sầu concern".

Throughout 2018, Đài Loan Trung Quốc stepped up pressure on international companies, forcing them to lớn các mục Taiwan as a part of Đài Loan Trung Quốc on their websites & threatening khổng lồ block them for doing business in Trung Quốc if they failed lớn comply.

Ms Tkhông đúng won a second term in 20trăng tròn. By that time Hong Kong had seen months of unrest, with protesters demonstrating against the mainland's increasing influence - a development many in Taiwan were watching closely.

Later that year, China's implementation of a national security law in Hong Kong was widely seen as yet another sign that Beijing was becoming more assertive sầu in the region.

At the same time, the US has been intensifying its outreach lớn Taiwan & reassuring Taipei of its continued tư vấn. Last September, Washington sent the highest-level state department official in decades khổng lồ visit the island.

Beijing strongly criticised the meeting, warning the US "not khổng lồ skết thúc any wrong signals to lớn 'Taiwan independence' elements lớn avoid severe damage lớn China-US relations". During the controversial visit, Trung Quốc conducted a live-fire military exercise in the waterway that separates the islvà from the mainl&.

This year, President Joe Biden's administration has said its commitment khổng lồ Taiwan is "rochồng solid".

In the first few days of Mr Biden's presidency, Taiwan reported a "large incursion" by Chinese warplanes over two days. Then on 12 April, the Taiwanese government said Đài Loan Trung Quốc flew the largest number of military jets inkhổng lồ its air defence zone for a year.

In response, US Admiral John Aquilino, head of the Pentagon's Indo-Pacific comm&, warned that a Chinese invasion of Taiwan "is much closer to lớn us than most think".

Trung Quốc regards Taiwan as a breakaway province which it has vowed to lớn retake, by force if necessary. But Taiwan's leaders say it is clearly much more than a province, arguing that it is a sovereign state.

It has its own constitution, democratically-elected leaders, and about 300,000 active sầu troops in its armed forces.

Chiang Kai-shek's Republic of China (ROC) government, which fled the mainl& lớn Taiwan in 1949, at first claimed to lớn represent the whole of Đài Loan Trung Quốc, which it intended to lớn re-occupy. It held China's seat on the United Nations Security Council & was recognised by many Western nations as the only Chinese government.

But in 1971, the UN switched diplomatic recognition khổng lồ Beijing and the ROC government was forced out. Since then the number of countries that recognise the ROC government diplomatically has fallen drastically lớn about 15.

Given the huge divide between these two positions, most other countries seem happy lớn accept the current ambiguity, whereby Taiwan has virtually all of the characteristics of an independent state, even if its legal status remains unclear.

While political progress has been slow, liên kết between the two peoples và economies have grown sharply. Taiwanese companies have sầu invested about $60bn (£40bn) in Đài Loan Trung Quốc, và up to lớn one million Taiwanese people now live there, many running Taiwanese factories.

Some Taiwanese people worry their economy is now dependent on China. Others believe that closer business ties make Chinese military action less likely, because of the cost to China's own economy.

A controversial trade agreement sparked the "Sunflower Movement" in năm trước, where students & activists occupied Taiwan's parliament protesting against what they called China's growing influence over Taiwan.

image captionRecent polls show many Taiwanese support the government's approach in "safeguarding national sovereignty"

Officially, the ruling DPP still favours eventual formal independence for Taiwan, while the KMT favours eventual re-unification.

A March 2021 opinion poll commissioned by the Taiwanese government shows that currently the majority of Taiwanese tư vấn the DPP.. government's approach in "safeguarding national sovereignty". More và more people also say they feel Taiwanese, rather than Chinese.

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In the 2020 election Ms Tsai won a record-breaking 8.2 million votes, that was widely seen as a snub to Beijing.