Công Nghệ Blockchain

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Luke Conway follows & researches the cryptocurrency & fintech space. Luke is an expert on blockchain and cryptocurrency.">

Luke Conway follows and researches the cryptocurrency and fintech space. Luke is an expert on blockchain & cryptocurrency.

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Julius' business experience is dynamic & includes leading the finance and operations management teams of companies in multiple industries which include real estate, logistics, financial services, and non profit organizations.

If you have been following banking, investing, or cryptocurrency over the last ten years, you may have heard the term “blockchain,” the record-keeping công nghệ behind the Bitcoin network.


Blockchain is a specific type of database.It differs from a typical database in the way it stores information; blockchains store data in blocks that are then chained together.As new data comes in it is entered into a fresh blochồng. Once the block is filled with data it is chained onto the previous bloông xã, which makes the data chained together in chronological order.Different types of information can be stored on a blockchain but the most common use so far has been as a ledger for transactions.In Bitcoin’s case, blockchain is used in a decentralized way so that no single person or group has control—rather, all users collectively retain control.Decentralized blockchains are immutable, which means that the data entered is irreversible. For Bitcoin, this means that transactions are permanently recorded và viewable khổng lồ anyone.

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain seems complicated, and it definitely can be, but its core concept is really quite simple. A blockchain is a type of database. To be able lớn understvà blockchain, it helps lớn first underst& what a database actually is.


A database is a collection of information that is stored electronically on a computer system. Information, or data, in databases is typically structured in table format lớn allow for easier searching and filtering for specific information. What is the difference between someone using a spreadsheet to lớn store information rather than a database?


Spreadsheets are designed for one person, or a small group of people, to lớn store and access limited amounts of information. In contrast, a database is designed lớn house significantly larger amounts of information that can be accessed, filtered, and manipulated quickly và easily by any number of users at once.


Large databases achieve sầu this by housing data on servers that are made of powerful computers. These servers can sometimes be built using hundreds or thousands of computers in order to lớn have the computational power và storage capađô thị necessary for many users khổng lồ access the database simultaneously. While a spreadsheet or database may be accessible lớn any number of people, it is often owned by a business & managed by an appointed individual that has complete control over how it works and the data within it.


Storage Structure

One key difference between a typical database & a blockchain is the way the data is structured. A blockchain collects information together in groups, also known as blocks, that hold sets of information. Blocks have sầu certain storage capacities và, when filled, are chained onlớn the previously filled bloông xã, forming a chain of data known as the “blockchain.” All new information that follows that freshly added bloông chồng is compiled into a newly formed bloông chồng that will then also be added to the chain once filled.


A database structures its data into tables whereas a blockchain, like its name implies, structures its data inkhổng lồ chunks (blocks) that are chained together. This makes it so that all blockchains are databases but not all databases are blockchains. This system also inherently makes an irreversible timeline of data when implemented in a decentralized nature. When a bloông xã is filled it is mix in stone and becomes a part of this timeline. Each bloông xã in the chain is given an exact timestamp when it is added lớn the chain.



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Decentralization

For the purpose of understanding blockchain, it is instructive sầu lớn view it in the context of how it has been implemented by Bitcoin. Like a database, Bitcoin needs a collection of computers lớn store its blockchain. For Bitcoin, this blockchain is just a specific type of database that stores every Bitcoin transaction ever made. In Bitcoin’s case, và unlượt thích most databases, these computers are not all under one roof, và each computer or group of computers is operated by a quality individual or group of individuals.


Imagine that a company owns a hệ thống comprised of 10,000 computers with a database holding all of its client"s tài khoản information. This company has a warehouse containing all of these computers under one roof & has full control of each of these computers & all the information contained within them. Similarly, Bitcoin consists of thousands of computers, but each computer or group of computers that hold its blockchain is in a different geographic location and they are all operated by separate individuals or groups of people. These computers that makeup Bitcoin’s network are called nodes.


In this Mã Sản Phẩm, Bitcoin’s blockchain is used in a decentralized way. However, private, centralized blockchains, where the computers that Cosplay its network are owned và operated by a single entity, do exist.


In a blockchain, each node has a full record of the data that has been stored on the blockchain since its inception. For Bitcoin, the data is the entire history of all Bitcoin transactions. If one node has an error in its data it can use the thousands of other nodes as a reference point khổng lồ correct itself. This way, no one node within the network can alter information held within it. Because of this, the history of transactions in each block that 3D Bitcoin’s blockchain is irreversible.


If one user tampers with Bitcoin’s record of transactions, all other nodes would cross-reference each other & easily pinpoint the node with the incorrect information. This system helps khổng lồ establish an exact và transparent order of events. For Bitcoin, this information is a các mục of transactions, but it also is possible for a blockchain to lớn hold a variety of information like legal contracts, state identifications, or a company’s hàng hóa inventory.


In order lớn change how that system works, or the information stored within it, a majority of the decentralized network’s computing power would need to lớn agree on said changes. This ensures that whatever changes bởi vì occur are in the best interests of the majority.


Transparency

Because of the decentralized nature of Bitcoin’s blockchain, all transactions can be transparently viewed by either having a personal node or by using blockchain explorers that allow anyone lớn see transactions occurring live. Each node has its own copy of the chain that gets updated as fresh blocks are confirmed and added. This means that if you wanted to, you could traông xã Bitcoin wherever it goes.


For example, exchanges have been hacked in the past where those who held Bitcoin on the exchange lost everything. While the hacker may be entirely anonymous, the Bitcoins that they extracted are easily traceable. If the Bitcoins that were stolen in some of these hacks were to be moved or spent somewhere, it would be known.


Is Blockchain Secure?

Blockchain công nghệ accounts for the issues of security and trust in several ways. First, new blocks are always stored linearly và chronologically. That is, they are always added to lớn the “end” of the blockchain. If you take a look at Bitcoin’s blockchain, you’ll see that each bloông chồng has a position on the chain, called a “height.” As of November 2020, the block’s height had reached 656,197 blocks so far.


After a blochồng has been added lớn the kết thúc of the blockchain, it is very difficult to go bachồng và alter the contents of the bloông xã unless the majority reached a consensus to lớn vì so. That’s because each block contains its own hash, along with the hash of the bloông xã before it, as well as the previously mentioned time stamp. Hash codes are created by a math function that turns digital information inkhổng lồ a string of numbers & letters. If that information is edited in any way, the hash code changes as well.


Here’s why that’s important khổng lồ security. Let’s say a hacker wants lớn alter the blockchain and steal Bitcoin from everyone else. If they were lớn alter their own single copy, it would no longer align with everyone else"s copy. When everyone else cross-references their copies against each other, they would see this one copy st& out and that hacker"s version of the chain would be cast away as illegitimate.


Succeeding with such a haông xã would require that the hacker simultaneously control and alter 51% of the copies of the blockchain so that their new copy becomes the majority copy & thus, the agreed-upon chain. Such an attachồng would also require an immense amount of money and resources as they would need to revì chưng all of the blocks because they would now have different timestamps and hash codes.


Due to lớn the form size of Bitcoin’s network và how fast it is growing, the cost to lớn pull off such a feat would probably be insurmountable. Not only would this be extremely expensive, but it would also likely be fruitless. Doing such a thing would not go unnoticed, as network members would see such drastic alterations lớn the blockchain. The network members would then fork off to a new version of the chain that has not been affected.


This would cause the attacked version of Bitcoin to plummet in value, making the attack ultimately pointless as the bad actor has control of a worthless asset. The same would occur if the bad actor were to attaông xã the new fork of Bitcoin. It is built this way so that taking part in the network is far more economically incentivized than attacking it.


Bitcoin vs. Blockchain

The goal of blockchain is lớn allow digital information khổng lồ be recorded và distributed, but not edited. Blockchain technology was first outlined in 1991 by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two researchers who wanted lớn implement a system where document timestamps could not be tampered with. But it wasn’t until almost two decades later, with the launch of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain had its first real-world application.


The Bitcoin protocol is built on a blockchain. In a research paper introducing the digital currency, Bitcoin’s pseudonymous creator, Satoshi Nakamoto, referred to it as “a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third buổi tiệc nhỏ.”


The key thing khổng lồ understand here is that Bitcoin merely uses blockchain as a means khổng lồ transparently record a ledger of payments, but blockchain can, in theory, be used to lớn immutably record any number of data points. As discussed above sầu, this could be in the size of transactions, votes in an election, hàng hóa inventories, state identifications, deeds to lớn homes, & much more.


Currently, there is a vast variety of blockchain-based projects looking khổng lồ implement blockchain in ways to lớn help society other than just recording transactions. One good example is that of blockchain being used as a way to vote in democratic elections. The nature of blockchain’s immutability means that fraudulent voting would become far more difficult khổng lồ occur.


For example, a voting system could work such that each citizen of a country would be issued a single cryptocurrency or token. Each candidate would then be given a specific wallet address, và the voters would skết thúc their token or crypkhổng lồ to whichever candidate"s address they wish to vote for. The transparent and traceable nature of blockchain would eliminate the need for human vote counting as well as the ability of bad actors khổng lồ tamper with physical ballots.


Blockchain vs. Banks

Banks và decentralized blockchains are vastly different. To see how a ngân hàng differs from blockchain, let’s compare the banking system lớn Bitcoin’s implementation of blockchain.


How is Blockchain Used?

As we now know, blocks on Bitcoin’s blockchain store data about monetary transactions. But it turns out that blockchain is actually a reliable way of storing data about other types of transactions, as well.


Some companies that have sầu already incorporated blockchain include Walmart, Pfizer, AIG, Siemens, Unilever, and a host of others. For example, IBM has created its Food Trust blockchain to lớn trace the journey that food products take to get lớn its locations.


Why bởi this? The food industry has seen countless outbreaks of e Coli, salmonella, listeria, as well as hazardous materials being accidentally introduced to lớn foods. In the past, it has taken weeks khổng lồ find the source of these outbreaks or the cause of sickness from what people are eating.


Using blockchain gives brands the ability to traông xã a food product’s route from its origin, through each stop it makes, & finally its delivery. If a food is found to be contaminated then it can be traced all the way baông xã through each stop to lớn its origin. Not only that, but these companies can also now see everything else it may have come in tương tác with, allowing the identification of the problem lớn occur far sooner, potentially saving lives. This is one example of blockchains in practice, but there are many other forms of blockchain implementation.


Banking và Finance

Perhaps no industry stands khổng lồ benefit from integrating blockchain inkhổng lồ its business operations more than banking. Financial institutions only operate during business hours, five sầu days a week. That means if you try khổng lồ deposit a check on Friday at 6 p.m., you will likely have sầu khổng lồ wait until Monday morning khổng lồ see that money hit your account. Even if you bởi make your deposit during business hours, the transaction can still take one lớn three days to verify due to the sheer volume of transactions that banks need to settle. Blockchain, on the other h&, never sleeps.


By integrating blockchain into banks, consumers can see their transactions processed in as little as 10 minutes, basically the time it takes khổng lồ add a block to lớn the blockchain, regardless of holidays or the time of day or week. With blockchain, banks also have the opportunity khổng lồ exchange funds between institutions more quickly & securely. In the stoông xã trading business, for example, the settlement và clearing process can take up to lớn three days (or longer, if trading internationally), meaning that the money & shares are frozen for that period of time.


Given the kích thước of the sums involved, even the few days that the money is in transit can carry significant costs and risks for banks. European bank Santander và its research partners put the potential savings at $15 billion lớn $đôi mươi billion a year. Capgemini, a French consultancy, estimates that consumers could save sầu up lớn $16 billion in banking & insurance fees each year through blockchain-based applications.

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Currency

Blockchain forms the bedroông xã for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. The U.S. dollar is controlled by the Federal Reserve sầu. Under this central authority system, a user’s data và currency are technically at the whyên ổn of their ngân hàng or government. If a user’s ngân hàng is hacked, the client’s private information is at risk. If the client’s ngân hàng collapses or they live in a country with an unstable government, the value of their currency may be at risk. In 2008, some of the banks that ran out of money were bailed out partially using taxpayer money. These are the worries out of which Bitcoin was first conceived và developed.


By spreading its operations across a network of computers, blockchain allows Bitcoin & other cryptocurrencies khổng lồ operate without the need for a central authority. This not only reduces risk but also eliminates many of the processing & transaction fees. It can also give sầu those in countries with unstable currencies or financial infrastructures a more stable currency with more applications and a wider network of individuals & institutions they can do business with, both domestically & internationally.


Using cryptocurrency wallets for savings accounts or as a means of payment is especially profound for those who have no state identification. Some countries may be war-torn or have sầu governments that laông xã any real infrastructure to lớn provide identification. Citizens of such countries may not have access lớn savings or brokerage accounts & therefore, no way to lớn safely store wealth.


Healthcare

Health care providers can leverage blockchain to lớn securely store their patients’ medical records. When a medical record is generated và signed, it can be written into lớn the blockchain, which provides patients with the proof and confidence that the record cannot be changed. These personal health records could be encoded and stored on the blockchain with a private key, so that they are only accessible by certain individuals, thereby ensuring privacy.


Records of Property

If you have ever spent time in your local Recorder’s Office, you will know that the process of recording property rights is both burdensome và inefficient. Today, a physical deed must be delivered lớn a government employee at the local recording office, where it is manually entered inlớn the county’s central database & public index. In the case of a property dispute, claims khổng lồ the property must be reconciled with the public index.


This process is not just costly and time-consuming—it is also riddled with human error, where each inaccuracy makes tracking property ownership less efficient. Blockchain has the potential to lớn eliminate the need for scanning documents và tracking down physical files in a local recording office. If property ownership is stored và verified on the blockchain, owners can trust that their deed is accurate & permanently recorded.


In war-torn countries or areas that have little khổng lồ no government or financial infrastructure, và certainly no “Recorder’s Office,” it can be nearly impossible to lớn prove sầu ownership of a property. If a group of people living in such an area is able khổng lồ leverage blockchain, transparent & clear timelines of property ownership could be established.


Smart Contracts

A smart contract is a computer code that can be built into lớn the blockchain to lớn facilitate, verify, or negotiate a contract agreement. Smart contracts operate under a set of conditions that users agree to lớn. When those conditions are met, the terms of the agreement are automatically carried out.


Say, for example, a potential tenant would like khổng lồ lease an apartment using a smart contract. The landlord agrees khổng lồ give the tenant the door code to lớn the apartment as soon as the tenant pays the security deposit. Both the tenant & the landlord would send their respective sầu portions of the khuyễn mãi giảm giá lớn the smart contract, which would hold onlớn and automatically exchange the door code for the security deposit on the date the lease begins. If the landlord doesn’t supply the door code by the lease date, the smart contract refunds the security deposit. This would eliminate the fees & processes typically associated with the use of a notary, third-buổi tiệc nhỏ mediator, or attornies.


Supply Chains

As in the IBM Food Trust example, suppliers can use blockchain to record the origins of materials that they have sầu purchased. This would allow companies khổng lồ verify the authentiđô thị of their products, along with such comtháng labels as “Organic,” “Local,” and “Fair Trade.”


As reported by Forbes, the food industry is increasingly adopting the use of blockchain khổng lồ trachồng the path and safety of food throughout the farm-to-user journey.


Voting

As mentioned, blockchain could be used to lớn facilitate a modern voting system. Voting with blockchain carries the potential to lớn eliminate election fraud and boost voter turnout, as was tested in the November 2018 midterm elections in West Virginia.Using blockchain in this way would make votes nearly impossible to lớn tamper with. The blockchain protocol would also maintain transparency in the electoral process, reducing the personnel needed lớn conduct an election & providing officials with nearly instant results. This would eliminate the need for recounts or any real concern that fraud might threaten the election.


Advantages và Disadvantages of Blockchain

For all of its complexity, blockchain’s potential as a decentralized khung of record-keeping is almost without limit. From greater user privacy and heightened security to lớn lower processing fees và fewer errors, blockchain technology may very well see applications beyond those outlined above. But there are also some disadvantages.


Pros

Improved accuracy by removing human involvement in verification

Cost reductions by eliminating third-tiệc ngọt verification

Decentralization makes it harder khổng lồ tamper with

Transactions are secure, private, & efficient

Transparent technology

Provides a banking alternative & way to lớn secure personal information for citizens of countries with unstable or underdeveloped governments


Cons

Significant giải pháp công nghệ cost associated with mining bitcoin

Low transactions per second

History of use in illicit activities

Regulation


Advantages of Blockchain

Accuracy of the Chain

Transactions on the blockchain network are approved by a network of thousands of computers. This removes almost all human involvement in the verification process, resulting in less human error và an accurate record of information. Even if a computer on the network were khổng lồ make a computational mistake, the error would only be made khổng lồ one copy of the blockchain. In order for that error lớn spread to lớn the rest of the blockchain, it would need lớn be made by at least 51% of the network’s computers—a near impossibility for a large và growing network the kích thước of Bitcoin’s.


Cost Reductions

Typically, consumers pay a bank lớn verify a transaction, a notary lớn sign a document, or a minister lớn persize a marriage. Blockchain eliminates the need for third-các buổi party verification and, with it, their associated costs. Business owners incur a small fee whenever they accept payments using credit cards, for example, because banks and payment processing companieshave khổng lồ process those transactions. Bitcoin, on the other h&, does not have a central authority và has limited transaction fees.


Decentralization

Blockchain does not store any of its information in a central location. Instead, the blockchain is copied & spread across a network of computers. Whenever a new bloông xã is added to lớn the blockchain, every computer on the network updates its blockchain khổng lồ reflect the change. By spreading that information across a network, rather than storing it in one central database, blockchain becomes more difficult to tamper with. If a copy of the blockchain fell into the hands of a hacker, only a single copy of the information, rather than the entire network, would be compromised.


Efficient Transactions

Transactions placed through a central authority can take up khổng lồ a few days khổng lồ settle. If you attempt lớn deposit a check on Friday evening, for example, you may not actually see funds in your account until Monday morning. Whereas financial institutions operate during business hours, five days a week, blockchain is working 24 hours a day, seven days a week, & 365 days a year. Transactions can be completed in as little as ten minutes and can be considered secure after just a few hours. This is particularly useful for cross-border trades, which usually take much longer because of time-zone issues và the fact that all parties must confirm payment processing.


Private Transactions

Many blockchain networks operate as public databases, meaning that anyone with an internet connection can view a danh mục of the network’s transaction history. Although users can access details about transactions, they cannot access identifying information about the users making those transactions. It is a comtháng misperception that blockchain networks lượt thích bitcoin are anonymous, when in fact they are only confidential.


That is, when a user makes public transactions, their unique code called a public key, is recorded on the blockchain, rather than their personal information. If a person has made a Bitcoin purchase on an exchange that requires identification then the person’s identity is still linked khổng lồ their blockchain address, but a transaction, even when tied lớn a person’s name, does not reveal any personal information.


Secure Transactions

Once a transaction is recorded, its authenticity must be verified by the blockchain network. Thousands of computers on the blockchain rush to lớn confirm that the details of the purchase are correct. After a computer has validated the transaction, it is added to the blockchain bloông xã. Each blochồng on the blockchain contains its own unique hash, along with the quality hash of the blochồng before it. When the information on a bloông chồng is edited in any way, that block’s hashcode changes—however, the hash code on the block after it would not. This discrepancy makes it extremely difficult for information on the blockchain lớn be changed without notice.


Transparency

Most blockchains are entirely open-source software. This means that anyone và everyone can view its code. This gives auditors the ability lớn reviews cryptocurrencies lượt thích Bitcoin for security. This also means that there is no real authority on who controls Bitcoin’s code or how it is edited. Because of this, anyone can suggest changes or upgrades khổng lồ the system. If a majority of the network users agree that the new version of the code with the tăng cấp is sound & worthwhile then Bitcoin can be updated.


Banking the Unbanked

Perhaps the most profound facet of blockchain and Bitcoin is the ability for anyone, regardless of ethnithành phố, gender, or cultural background, to lớn use it. According to the world bank there are nearly 2 billion adults that vày not have ngân hàng accounts or any means of storing their money or wealth. Nearly all of these individuals live in developing countries where the economy is in its infancy and entirely dependent on cash.


These people often earn little money that is paid in physical cash. They then need khổng lồ store this physical cash in hidden locations in their homes or places of living leaving them subject khổng lồ robbery or unnecessary violence. Keys to lớn a bitcoin wallet can be stored on a piece of paper, a cheap cell phone, or even memorized if necessary. For most people, it is likely that these options are more easily hidden than a small pile of cash under a mattress.


Blockchains of the future are also looking for solutions to lớn not only be a unit of trương mục for wealth storage, but also to store medical records, property rights, and a variety of other legal contracts.


Disadvantages of Blockchain

While there are significant upsides to lớn the blockchain, there are also significant challenges khổng lồ its adoption. The roadblocks to the application of blockchain technology today are not just technical. The real challenges are political & regulatory, for the most part, khổng lồ say nothing of the thousands of hours (read: money) of custom software kiến thiết and back-kết thúc programming required lớn integrate blockchain to lớn current business networks. Here are some of the challenges standing in the way of widespread blockchain adoption.


Technology Cost

Although blockchain can save users money on transaction fees, the công nghệ is far from không lấy phí. The “proof of work” system that bitcoin uses lớn validate transactions, for example, consumes vast amounts of computational power. In the real world, the power from the millions of computers on the bitcoin network is cđại bại to lớn what Denmark consumes annually. Assuming electriđô thị costs of $0.03~$0.05 per kilowatt-hour, mining costs exclusive sầu of hardware expenses are about $5,000~$7,000 per coin.10


Despite the costs of mining bitcoin, users continue to lớn drive sầu up their electrithành phố bills in order to lớn validate transactions on the blockchain. That’s because when miners add a bloông xã khổng lồ the bitcoin blockchain, they are rewarded with enough bitcoin to make their time và energy worthwhile. When it comes to lớn blockchains that vì chưng not use cryptocurrency, however, miners will need to be paid or otherwise incentivized to lớn validate transactions.


Some solutions to lớn these issues are beginning to lớn arise. For example, bitcoin mining farms have sầu been mix up to use solar power, excess natural gas from fracking sites, or power from wind farms.


Speed Inefficiency

Bitcoin is a perfect case study for the possible inefficiencies of blockchain. Bitcoin’s “proof of work” system takes about ten minutes khổng lồ add a new blochồng to lớn the blockchain. At that rate, it’s estimated that the blockchain network can only manage about seven transactions per second (TPS). Although other cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum perkhung better than bitcoin, they are still limited by blockchain. Legacy br& Visa, for context, can process 24,000 TPS.


Solutions to lớn this issue have been in development for years. There are currently blockchains that are boasting over 30,000 transactions per second.


Illegal Activity

While confidentiality on the blockchain network protects users from hacks & preserves privacy, it also allows for illegal trading & activity on the blockchain network. The most cited example of blockchain being used for illicit transactions is probably the Silk Road, an online “dark web” drug marketplace operating from February 2011 until October 2013 when it was shut down by the FBI.


The trang web allowed users to lớn browse the website without being tracked using the Tor browser and make illegal purchases in Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. Current U.S. regulations require financial service providers lớn obtain information about their customers when they open an account, verify the identity of each customer, và confirm that customers vì not appear on any danh sách of known or suspected terrorist organizations. This system can be seen as both a pro & a nhỏ. It gives anyone access lớn financial accounts but also allows criminals to more easily transact. Many have sầu argued that the good uses of crypto, lượt thích banking the unbanked world, outweigh the bad uses of cryptocurrency, especially when most illegal activity is still accomplished through untraceable cash.


Regulation

Many in the crypto lớn space have expressed concerns about government regulation over cryptocurrencies. While it is getting increasingly difficult and near impossible khổng lồ end something like Bitcoin as its decentralized network grows, governments could theoretically make it illegal to own cryptocurrencies or participate in their networks.


Over time this concern has grown smaller as large companies lượt thích PayPal begin to lớn allow the ownership & use of cryptocurrencies on its platform.


What's Next for Blockchain?

First proposed as a retìm kiếm project in 1991, blockchain is comfortably settling inkhổng lồ its late twenties. Like most millennials its age, blockchain has seen its fair nói qua of public scrutiny over the last two decades, with businesses around the world speculating about what the công nghệ is capable of và where it’s headed in the years to come.


With many practical applications for the công nghệ already being implemented and explored, blockchain is finally making a name for itself at age twenty-seven, in no small part because of bitcoin và cryptocurrency. As a buzzword on the tongue of every investor in the nation, blockchain stands to lớn make business and government operations more accurate, efficient, secure, and cheap with fewer middlemen.


As we prepare to lớn head inkhổng lồ the third decade of blockchain, it’s no longer a question of "if" legacy companies will catch on lớn the technology—it"s a question of "when."


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https://www.ibm.com/products/food-trust

https://nakamotostudies.org/literature/bitcoin/

https://www.finextra.com/finextra-downloads/newsdocs/the%20fintech%202%200%20paper.pdf

https://www.capgemini.com/news/consumers-set-to-save-up-to-sixteen-billion-dollars-on-banking-and-insurance-fees-thanks-to/

https://globalfindex.worldngân hàng.org/sites/globalfindex/files/chapters/2017%20Findex%20full%20report_chapter2.pdf

https://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field-offices/newyork/news/press-releases/ross-ulbricht-the-creator-and-owner-of-the-silk-road-website-found-guilty-in-manhattan-federal-court-on-all-counts

https://www.anf.es/pdf/Haber_Stornetta.pdf


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